Module 6: Educational Research

This module was concerned with the development of an extended research proposal for my dissertation. This is to include extensive reading around my chosen area of study, the development of a research question, timeline and research design and consideration of ethics.

I finally settled on the following research question:

To what extent can virtual courses support the development of independent learning beyond ‘real time’ curriculum delivery?

With the following subsidiary questions:

  1. Can virtual courses effectively develop skills/attributes, recognised as being absent in learners beginning undergraduate courses?
  2. Can virtual courses be entirely independent or is there a preference for face-to-face interaction between learner and educator?
    • Model 1: A combination face-to-face interaction with the teacher alongside the virtual course. The teacher sets the pace of the learning and decides the learning path.
    • Model 2: Virtual course only. Interaction is encouraged between learners with minimal text-based (electronic) interaction with the teacher (Email/Twitter). The learners set their own pace and decide their own path.
  3. Is there a relationship between results achieved and participants preferred model?
  4. Does either model result in any immediate impact on students’ learning at A-Level?
  5. Which of the two models is most effective in developing learner independence/interdependence?

The completed proposal, including an outline of the course, literature review and detailed research approach design can be read here: ER Assignment.

What follows is a full set of references including web links where available:

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  • Bassey, M (1981) Pedagogic research: on the relative merits of the search for generalization and study of single events, Oxford Review of Education, 7(1), 73-93
  • Bell, J. (2005) Doing Your Research Project: a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science, Maidenhead: Open University Press (5th ed.)
  • Belshaw, Doug (2011) Student attendance in the digital age, JISC Inform, Issue 31, Retrieved, January 2012 from the World Wide Web on: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/inform/inform31/DougBelshaw.html
  • Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. and Tight, M. (2010) How to Research, 4th edition, Buckingham: Open University Press
  • Claxton, G (2006) Expanding the Capacity to Learn: A new end for education? (BERA 2006 Keynote)
  • Cohen, L. (1976) Educational Research in Classroom and Schools: A Manual of Materials and Methods, London: Routledge (4th ed.)
  • Cohen, Louis., Manion, Lawrence., Morrison, Keith. (2007) Research Methods in Education, Routledge, 6th Edition.
  • Cormier, D. (2010) Success in a MOOC, Retrieved August 2010 from the World Wide Web: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=r8avYQ5ZqM0
  • Crabtree, H., Roberts, C. and Tyler, C. (2007) Understanding the Problems of Transition into Higher Education, Retrieved July 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ece.salford.ac.uk/proceedings/papers/35_07.pdf
  • Demetriou, H. The Case Study, in Wilson, E (2009) School based research, London, Sage.
  • Denscombe, M. (2010) The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects, 4th ed, Open University Press.
  • Dziuban, H., & Moskal, P. (2004). Blended learning. E-Center for Applied Research Bulletin, (7): 1-12.
  • Downes, S. (2011) ‘Connectivism’ and Connective Knowledge, Huffington Post, Retrieved August 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/stephen-downes/connectivism-and-connecti_b_804653.html
  • Facer, Keri (2011) Learning Futures: Education, Technology and Social Change, T & F Books UK
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  • Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E., Duncan, Ravit G., and Chinn, Clark A.,(2007) Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) Educational Psychologist, 42:2, 99–107
  • Jarvis, Christine (2010): Practicalities not prejudices: HE admissions and 14–19 diplomas, Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 15:4, 441-454
  • Jonassen, et al (2003) Learning to solve problems with technology: a constructivist perspective.
  • Kirschner, Paul A., Sweller, John, Clark, Richard E., (2006): Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching, Educational Psychologist, 41:2, 75-86
  • Krippendorf, K. (1980) Content Analysis, London: Sage Publications in Bell, J. (2005) Doing Your Research Project: a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science, Maidenhead: Open University Press (5th ed.)
  • Mitra, S., Dangwal, R., Chatterjee, S., Jha, S., Bisht, R. S. and Kapur, P. (2005). Acquisition of computing literacy on shared public computers: Children and the “hole in the wall”, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 21(3), 407-426. Retrieved, April 2010 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet21/mitra.html
  • Mitra, S.(2009) Remote Presence: Technologies for ‘Beaming’ Teachers Where They Cannot Go, Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, Vol. 1, No. 1
  • Morris, Sean Michael (2012) Broadcast Education: a Response to Coursera, Hybrid Pedagogy, Retrieved August 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.hybridpedagogy.com/Journal/files/Broadcast_Education.html
  • The Mozilla Foundation and Peer 2 Peer University (2012) Open Badges for Lifelong Learning (White Paper), Retrieved July 2012 from the World Wide Web: https://wiki.mozilla.org/images/archive/5/59/20120827221150%21OpenBadges-Working-Paper_012312.pdf
  • Puentedura, Ph.D., Ruben R. (2006) Transformation, Technology, and Education, Retrieved 15th June, 2010 from the World Wide Web: http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/
  • Punch, K. F. (2005) Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, London: Sage (2nd ed.)
  • Resnick, Mitchell (2012) Learning from Scratch, Learning Without Frontiers Conference 2012 (Video), Retrieved 13.02.12 from the World Wide Web: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDPssJedOJ4
  • Rheingold, Howard (2012) Toward Peeragogy, DML Central, Retrieved, August 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://dmlcentral.net/blog/howard-rheingold/toward-peeragogy
  • Robinson, Ken (2006) Ken Robinson says schools kill creativity, TED 2006 (Video). Retrieved, May 2010 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html
  • Robson, C. (1993) Real World Research. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd
  • Schofield, Cathy (2010) Entry profiles as Predictors of Retention and Success of HE students within an FE context, presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Warwick, 1-4 September 2010
  • SEEC (2010). Credit level descriptors for Higher Education. Southern England Consortium for Credit Accumulation and Transfer, Retrieved, May 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.seec.org.uk
  • Siemens, G. (2008) What is the uniquie idea in Connectivism, Retrieved August 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.connectivism.ca/?p=116
  • Siemens, G. (2012a) What is the theory that underpins our MOOCs?, Retrieved August 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2012/06/03/what-is-the-theory-that-underpins-our-moocs/
  • Siemens, G. (2012b) MOOCa are really a platform, Retrieved August 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/2012/07/25/moocs-are-really-a-platform/
  • Stenhouse, L. (1985) Research as a basis for teaching: readings from the work of Lawrence Stenhouse, Oxford: Heinmann Educational
  • Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioural research, London: Sage.
  • Thornburg, David D. Ph.D. (2007) Campfires in Cyberspace: Primordial Metaphors for Learning in the 21st Century, Retrieved, April 2010 from the World Wide Web: http://www.tcpd.org/thornburg/handouts/campfires.pdf
  • Webb, E., Campbell, D., Schwartz, R., & Sechrest, L. (1966) Unobtrusive measures. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
  • Whitebread, David., Anderson, Holly., Coltman, Penny., Page, Charlotte., Pino Pasternak, Deborah., Mehta, Sanjana., (2005), Developing independent learning in the early years, Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 33:1, 40-50
  • Yin, R. (1994) Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing
  • Yin, R. (2006) Mixed Methods Research: Are the Methods Genuinely Integrated or Merely Parallel?, Research in the Schools, 13:1, 41-47

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